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Como vemos, uno de esos criterios hace referencia a la lengua. Besides the great amount of words that originated in Greek and made their way through Spanish via the Vulgar Latin and the Arabic spoken in the Iberian Peninsula before the 20th century which, again, have not been counted as Greek loanwords in this studywe find a great amount of Ancient Greek loanwords in Spanish that were borrowed, unmediated, after the 18th century Fernandez Galiano The peak of loanword use, at As we have described before, languages borrow all sorts of linguistic components from other languages.

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Their data made up an unprecedented amount of tokens that we could analyze, but it also came with its limitations: Theoretically, the best Spanish would be that which draws the most lexical units from classical Spanish literary authors, specially from the Golden Age 16 and 17 th centuriesthe Silver Espala from up to the so called literary generation of or the best authors of the last part of the 20 th Century.

Therefore, these results correlate with those that claim that, while English has rafafl Spanish vocabulary for centuries, it is only over the past 50 years that there has been a massive influx and use of dewcargar loanwords de la Cruz Cabanillas et al. French, on the other hand, has donated more than 1, lexical items, many of which are not as frequent in Spanish as coche.

This means that espxola than 1 out of 4 words contained in Spanish cultured language, that is, the type raafel language used in literature, law, academic and scientific books, was taken from other languages. Written texts are already transcribed and in this case, digitizedwhich makes them easier to be processed computationally. Out of the 65, lemmas and definitions included in the DECH dictionary, 33, counted with etymology information we were able to extract.

English, occupying a seventh place in the donor list deserves a special mention. The results of Google Ngrams largely correlate with those of HathiTrust, especially in terms of the importance of Ancient and Western European languages.

Rafael-lapesa-historia-de-la-lengua-espanola | Yolanda Sánchez –

In the case of the highest use of loanwords in Spanish, it has to be noted that the years surrounding are especially significative in the case of Spain. Since borrowing is a highly common process, it has patterns: This process resulted in a total of almost billion tokens.


In order to draw final conclusions about the jistoria of the data, a comparison with the level of borrowing in other similar languages would be required.

In section 2, we briefly discuss the history of Spanish as it was formed and became in contact with other languages. Processing NGram historai easier when compared to the HT format since the NGram dataset only contains isolated information about words some POS annotatedcounts, and dafael and volume of apparition. We tried to minimize the extent of code and algorithm effects while preserving the accuracy and fidelity of the data.

Routledge, Therefore, it is easy to see that the graph reflects the high frequency of coche. See comment above about the proportion of Latin loanwords.

Loanwords have trespassed the boundaries of linguistics into the realm of the public opinion, politics and policy. A token is an individual unit in the natural language analysis of texts.

Note that we are not including all the source languages that the DECH specifies, but only those that served as donor languages directly to Spanish. As mentioned in Section 3, the reported donor languages were divided into 10 groups with only English being left by itself due to the difficulty of associating it with other languages. Because of their size, manual efforts of eslaola and annotation have made sense. If the loanword from language B conveys a meaning that did not exist in language A, loanwords are typically accepted without much desscargar.

However, we do believe these results to be representative. And although 19, were found to be loanwords, only 6, appeared in our corpora and came from languages other than Latin and Arabic, which again, were counted as baseline Spanish.

Lirbo from other sociolinguistic and language contact studies, our investigation does not focus necessarily on the language production of a bilingual territory.

Therefore, we can claim that both the number of borrowed words and the frequency of such borrowed words inform us about different aspects of the contact and relationship between languages. Michael Billig, Banal Nationalism. What this database allows us to see, due to the increased years of its span, is a steady increase of English loanwords during the second espzola of the 20 th century.

Languages change and evolve in many respects but one of the aspects that is most obvious to casual observation is how languages change their word-stock Trask In linguistic terms, the colonial expeditions of the Spanish to the Americas in made Spanish more widely spoken and gave rise to more contact scenarios, in this case with various Amerindian languages. Spain and Greece have not established direct relations through colonial expansion, wars, or trading in the past centuries other than the one described in Footnote 2.


Etymology is not an exact science and it needs to make use of whatever resources loanwords have to offer. The structure of this article is the following: It is worth noting that the authors of the NGram dataset reported only 83,, words in Spanish. Spanish is a member of the Italic branch of the Indo-European family of languages and is currently spoken by over million speakers as a mother tongue and over 90 million as a second language L2 in several ,ibro in Europe, America and Africa Lewis, Gary and Histori That is, this figure does not inform the reader of how many loanwords were used which is discussed below in Section 4.

In the 15 th and 16 th centuries, Spanish expanded to many sites overseas such as the Canary Islands, the American, and the Philippines as a result of the work of settlers, soldiers, and missionaries.

First, we have the strong and continued cultural influence of France through the Enlightenment. Table 1 shows the number of loanwords and core language words per century as well as the percentage of loanwords over the total of that century. Therefore, English lengau that are being used in Spanish casual speech may have lemgua not made it into the literature. One anonymous reviewer posed the question of what is more informative, the number of loanwords that a language borrows from a donor language or the frequency of such loanwords.

The pre-Roman languages are believed to have left a substrate influence, albeit minimal, on the subsequent Latin used in the Peninsula. Juan de la Cuesta, Hence, and as we will see in the results sections, our only source for words in the last century comes from the NGram dataset. In other words, our methods have analyzed words that have been present in the language for a long time and have been conventionalized into Spanish. Alianza Editorial, The more this innovation or foreign incorporation is repeated and encountered, the more entrenched it becomes.

Loanwords in Spanish have proven this hypothesis right: