It has sometimes been erroneously compared to the fief of medieval Europe. The iqṭāʿ system was established in the 9th century ad to relieve the state treasury. The iqtadari was a unique type of land distribution and administrative system evolved during the Sultanate per~od. Under the system, the whole. Meaning of the Iqta system: ‘Iqta’ is an Arabic word denoting a sort of administrative regional unit. It is usually considered equivalent to a province. Initially the.

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It was just an administrative unit. The office of Muqti was made hereditary and we are told that the salary of the Muqti was also fixed at a higher sysem. Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. A new estimate of revenue income was made and fixed permanently. Initially, iqta was a revenue-yielding sysem of land which was assigned in lieu of salary.

The Ghurid conquest of North India heralding the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate also marked a new iqtaa of centralization. The iqtadari system witnessed numerous changes during the Sultanate period. Views Read Edit View history. Muhammad of Ghur was the first to introduce the iqta system in India, but it was lltutrnish who gave it an institutional form.

As with other feudal-like tax farming systems, Iqta’ evolved from the tribal practices. The sadr-us-sudur enforced the Islamic rules and regulations, and supervised charity and pious foundations.

The cultivators were left at the mercy of military overlords in possession of the soil. The demarcation of duties between shiqdars and katwais is not very clear. The revenue collected was to be used to fulfill the obligations to the Sultan who would fix the systej and pay for the troops. The business of the government was organised in several departments.


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Iqta System

The holders of large Iqta were the provincial governors, who sysetm some administrative responsibilities also. A mechanism had to be devised to collect the surplus from the peasantry and redistribute it among the members of the ruling class. The crucial element in this mechanism was the iqta that combined the two functions of collection and distribution without immediately endangering the unity of the political structure. The three phases are.

However, during Firuz Shah Tughlaq’s reign, it became hereditary. Suggest ways for better implementation of the Act? In the 13th century, the Delhi Sultanate was divided into a number of military regions, called iqtas. The chaudhari was the head of a pargana.

Administration of India under the Delhi Sultanate

As part of a policy of tighter control over the mobility, he demanded excess revenue or surplus over and above the expenditure incurred by the Muqti. A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. This was regarded as one of the most important agrarian reforms of Alauddin Khilji.

The iqtas were transferable, i. There was also a reestablishment of the system of payment of troops in revenue of villages. Name of the School I Teach: The Sultan was an autocrat and his will was law, though he considered himself the deputy of the Khalifa.

Keep Exploring Britannica English language. Unlike European systems, the Muqtis had no right iqya interfere with the personal life of a paying person if the person stayed on the Muqti’s land. He was also the commander-in-chief of the military forces. During the time of Iltutmish, the Sultan paid soldiers of the central army syatem Iqtas wajh and from here onwards, we hear of the transferring of Muqtis. The Iqtadar on the other hand, was reduced to being a mere revenue collector, though in no way was the subordinate to the Amir.


They had no other right to the subjects apart from the taxes as long as taxes were paid.


They had to maintain the troops and furnish them at call. His absolutist rule concentrated on limiting the power of the estates mainly the nobility and merchants and securing his supreme authority as the king.

The process of centralization as a clear policy was implemented under Balban. There were two kinds of Iqtas viz. Explain with at least two examples.

The grants later became nuclei out of which petty principalities grew with the decline of the central itqa.

Administration of India under the Delhi Sultanate

In the beginning, an Iqta was based upon salary. There are significant variances in the sytsem implementation of Iqta’ systems throughout the different periods and in different area, so it is difficult to completely generalize them. The overarching theme was state power where the iqta was revocable and uninheritable.

The Sultans of Delhi did not follow any law of succession.

The muqtis can’t systwm any further claims on them. The Amir was responsible for maintenance of administration and military arrangement within the iqta. A slave was considered by law as property,…. Thank you for your feedback. It is thus clear that the muqtis only hold the land under the king, the land in truth belongs to the Sultan.

Contrary to most other forms of Iqta, it was hereditary, but the land was divided when there were more sons xystem age. Democracy, literally, rule by the people. Internet URLs are the best. These officials included nazir and lOakuf.